Some believe that when policing does not work sometimes for some people these problems are random, the fault of bad apples or bad luck, and the system as a whole is not implicated. Others maintain routine policing (and prosecution and prison) has negative impacts on particular groups of people that are systemic, predictable, over-determined, expected, and perhaps even intended.

Key words: domestic violence, intimate partner violence, economic empowerment, LGBTQ survivors, criminal justice system